Mike Wallace

July 28, 1957 – “The Voice of the White South” on The Mike Wallace Interview Show


Senator James Eastland

Senator James Eastland, D-Mississippi

On July 28, 1957, Mike Wallace interviewed anti-civil rights Senator James Eastland of Mississippi on his CBS show.  The Civil Rights Act of 1957, primarily a voting rights act with the goal of ensuring all African-Americans could exercise their right to vote, was under consideration in the Senate.  Sen. Eastland headed up the judiciary committee, where the bill was in the process of being significantly altered to achieve compromise between pro- and anti-rights factions.  Wallace refrained from questioning Eastland about the pending bill, seeking his opinions on segregation, slavery, the Soviet Union, voting rights laws, and the Ku Klux Klan during the hour-length show.

In this post, I will quote Eastland accurately, as offensive as that may be.  Wallace used the term “Negro” to refer to African-American citizens in 1957; Eastland used both “Negro” and “Nigra”.

Sen. Eastland’s statements included:

“This doctrine of the separation of the races has been involved over many years by both races.  It’s not something that one race has imposed on another race.”

“After the south was defeated [in the Civil War], when the white people were disenfranchised and could not vote, the first reconstruction legislature of my state controlled by members of the Nigra race passed three laws: one, that there be segregation on trains and in public transportation; two, that there be a separate school system; three they levied a poll tax; four, they made it a felony for the races to intermarry and provided a life sentence in the penitentiary for one who crossed that line.”

“The vast majority of Negroes want their own schools, their own hospitals, their own churches, their own restaurants.”

“I’m suggesting . . . 99% of Negroes in the south want segregation, certainly.”

“The war between the states was caused by other reasons [than the abolition of slavery].”

“I don’t think . . . where there is a real racial problem . . . that [school integration] will work.”

“[Negroes] do not vote [in Mississippi] because they have a long history of Republicanism, they are members of the Republican Party, and of course they cannot vote in the Democratic primary which is the election in our state.  The Republican Party doesn’t even run candidates.”

“Segregation in the south . . . is to protect both races.”

And, finally, Wallace asked, “Do you think, Senator, the day will come in your lifetime when we will see an integrated south?”

Eastland’s reply: “No.”

Image Credit: Mississippi Department of Archives and History

June 9, 1957 – Mike Wallace Interviews Dr. Ralph Lapp

Ralph Lapp

Nuclear physicist Dr. Ralph Lapp

On June 9, 1957, nuclear physicist, Manhattan Project participant, and advisor to the US War Department Dr. Ralph Lapp appeared on The Mike Wallace Interview on ABC.  In his introduction, Wallace explained that Dr Lapp had given up his research to crusade against nuclear bomb testing, the fallout from which he believed led to unacceptable levels of risk for cancer and birth defects.  There was disagreement within the Atomic Energy Commission and the scientific community over whether fallout was dangerous for the general population and Mike and Ralph discussed this issue in depth.  Other topics covered in the interview included the role of bomb testing as a counter to the military threat of the Soviet Union, how Dr Lapp felt personally about participating in the creation of the atomic bomb, his semi-serious proposal for creating sperm banks, and whether scientists were, or should be, religious men.

Dr. Lapp had the following to say:

On fallout testing: “If I say that the risk of inducing leukemia in a population is 100th of 1 percent, that may seem a relatively small risk.  . .  Although the relative number is small, the absolute number is large . . . a man who holds human life in great regard . . . views the absolute number as most significant.”

On the threat of the Soviet Union: “I have made this statement many times, that if we, the United States, were to cease our tests, unilaterally, I believe it would be interpreted as a weakness by the Soviet Union and I think eventually we would be ground under their heel.”

On his role in the Manhattan Project: “It is difficult to explain to a person who has never done creative research . . . the thrill that you get when you do something for the first time.  I think it is one of the greatest rewards that a scientist can have.  But we did hold meetings . . . when we talked about what the consequences of this would be.  On the basis of the intelligence given to us . . . we felt that we were in a race to beat the Germans to this weapon . . . Our worry was where would the United States be if Hitler turned up with this weapon and we did not have it?”

On the possible conflict between science and religion: “I would like to say that I think both strive for the same thing, which is the search for truth.  I believe that [scientists] are no more or less religious than ordinary groups, but my own feeling is that a scientist ought to be . . . when one penetrates into the mystery of science, you see so much.  The scientist has the key to open the door to a vaster understanding.”

Image Credit: International Magazine Services archive