USA Government

July 15, 1957 – LA Times Publisher Norman Chandler on the Cover of Time Magazine

On July 15, 1957, Los Angeles Times publisher Norman Chandler appeared on the cover of Time Magazine.  The city, the man, and his paper were the subject of the lead story, “CITIES: The New World“.  Norman’s grandfather, Union Army Colonel Harrison Gray Otis, had arrived in Los Angeles in 1882, bought up a quarter-interest in the Times, served as its editor, and four years later bought the publication outright.  In 1886, the paper had a  circulation of about 2500.  By 1957, what had once been a small pueblo settlement on the Pacific Ocean had transformed into a 455-square-mile city of over 2 million inhabitants, with satellite communities covering 4853 square miles, three times the size of Rhode Island.  As of the date of the Time article, the LA Times circulation numbered 462, 257.

Harrison Otis’ tenure at the paper saw the arrival of two railroads and a population surge into the city.  Around the turn of the century, ambitious circulation boss Harry Chandler married Harrison’s daughter Marian.  Chandler took over the paper soon after and became a major driving force in the growth of the City of Angels.  He played a significant role (and enlarged his personal fortune by many millions of dollars) in the construction of an aqueduct to bring water and agricultural prosperity to the San Fernando Valley. Harry was also instrumental in establishing LA as the center of a $2.5 billion aircraft industry (Douglas, Lockheed, North American, Northrup), and had a hand in the development of the California Institute of Technology, the Memorial Coliseum, Union Station, and the Hoover Dam.

Norman Chandler, age 57 when the article was published, politically conservative, grew up on his family’s ranch north of LA and studied business at Stanford University.  He married Dorothy Buffum (“Buffie”, namesake of the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion), came back to work at the Times and then took over when Harry retired in 1941.  Norman and Buffie managed a multi-million dollar business empire which included paper manufacturing, real estate, securities, television, commercial printing, ranching, and oil.  They funded the construction of the Hollywood Palladium, the Los Angeles Music Center, and the restoration of the Hollywood Bowl.

“Today’s Los Angeles is too amorphous for one man to rule, one newspaper to command,” the article pronounced.  Republican Chandler and his paper nevertheless strongly backed California G.O.P. political candidates, including Vice President Richard M. Nixon.  “I think Dick Nixon would make one of the finest Presidents the U.S. has ever had, ” Chandler asserted.  “[California U.S. Senator] Bill Knowland is a fine man, but if they are both candidates for the G.O.P. nomination in 1960, Mr. Nixon will get the support of the Times.”

Image Credit: Time Magazine

1957 Pantry – Try Tuna Salad

Hold the presses! On July 11, 1957, the Department of the Interior issued a release to food editors across the nation. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service, whose mission is to “conserve, protect and enhance fish, wildlife and plants and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people,” want citizens from New York City to Newport Beach to . . . “Try Tuna Salad for Main Dish at Picnics.”

I I1957 Tuna Salad

I’m not sure how suggesting a picnic with tuna salad, using canned tuna, meets the Fish and Wildlife Service mission to conserve and protect our fish and wildlife?

But let’s leave that little puzzle and head to the beach! Pack up the plaid Skotch Kooler, the Pendleton blanket, the sand toys, and the transistor radio. Spread out the potato chips, buttered rolls, fruit, coffee and cupcakes. Build a driftwood fire, see the sun set, burn a few marshmallows, and watch the stars come out. It’s summertime . . . .

Image Credit: U.S. Department of the Interior Information Service

July 11, 1957 – Texas Boy Scouts Arrive for the 1957 National Jamboree

Boy Scout Jamboree NPS

Scouts arriving at the Valley Forge State Park for the Jamboree

On July 11, 1957, the Texas and Pacific Special, with eleven passenger coaches, two baggage cars, and one baggage dormitory car, arrived at Valley Forge State Park with 576 Texan Boy Scouts and their leaders for the 1957 National Scout Jamboree.  The excited group joined Scouts from across the nation – 52,580 in all – along with 30,000 visitors.  Valley Forge was transformed into a 25,000-tent city with a theater carved out of a hillside the size of Yankee Stadium.

On the way, the “TP Special” had stopped in Washington, DC for tours of the White House, the Capitol Building, the Washington and Jefferson memorials, Arlington National Cemetery, and Mount Vernon.  While in Valley Forge, the Scouts heard from Vice President Richard Nixon, watched fireworks displays, learned the history of Valley Forge, and were treated to an aerial show by the US Air Force Thunderbirds.  One day trip took them to New York City to see the Empire State Building, Rockefeller Center, the Statue of Liberty, Radio City Music Hall, and the United Nations.  On another day they traveled to Philadelphia to see Independence Hall, the Liberty Bell, Carpenter Hall (where the first Continental Congress met in 1774), the home of Betsy Ross, and the World War II U-boat-fighting submarine, USS Hake.

On the final night of the Jamboree, the story of Scout founder Braden Powell was told.  The stadium lights were turned off, and over 52,000 candles illuminated the memorable scene.  The Texas Scouts boarded their train for home, first stopping at Niagara Falls, then travelling through Canada to Detroit.  The Ford Motor Company played host to the group, giving them an exciting look at a huge factory assembly line – and a shiny new car produced in just minutes.  For many boys, it was the trip of a lifetime.

Image Credit: National Park Service

July 4, 1957 – An American Family Visits the Pennsylvania Gettysburg Monument

On July 4, 1957, American father Walter Reed took his family to visit Gettysburg, where occurred from July 1-3, 1863 one of the most significant battles of the Civil War.  More soldiers died at Gettysburg than at any other Civil War battle, and the Union victory there signaled a turning point in our nation’s conflict.  Reed’s photo captures the Pennsylvania Monument, the largest of many monuments gracing the site. The granite pavilion commemorates the state which provided the most troops, the Union army commander, and the battlefield itself.

A little over four months later, on November 19, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln dedicated the Soldier’s National Cemetery at Gettysburg with a short speech that has come to stand with the Declaration of Independence as a founding document for our nation.  On July 4th, Walter Reed and his family celebrated our independence at Gettysburg; perhaps they also read the Gettysburg Address together:

“Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

“Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure.  We are met here on a great battlefield of that war.  We have come to dedicate a portion of it as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live.  It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

“But in a larger sense we can not dedicate – we can not consecrate –  we can not hallow this ground.  The brave men, living and dead, who struggled, here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract.  The world will little note, or long remember, what we say here, but can never forget what they did here.

“It is for us, the living, rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they have, so far, so nobly carried on.  It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining here before us – that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion – that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom; and that this government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”

Reed took a number of photos that day, some of which were later published in The Open Road: The Way We Were, by Dorothy Youngblood. His photo of the Pennsylvania Monument includes his beautiful turquoise and white 1955 Ford Fairlane Town Sedan.

Image Credit: Leon Reed/flickr

July 2, 1957 – Sen. John F Kennedy’s Controversial Speech: “Imperialism – The Enemy of Freedom”

John F Kennedy Speech

Sen. John F. Kennedy, D-Massachusetts

On July 2, 1957, John F Kennedy, the very junior United States senator from Massachusetts, upset almost everyone in the Washington, DC power elite – including his own Democratic party – with a speech to the assembled Senate on the folly of modern-day imperialism.  The immediate context for his speech, “Imperialism – The Enemy of Freedom,” was France’s ongoing repression of revolutionary forces in their colony of Algeria.  But Kennedy looked beyond North Africa to the Middle East and the Arab world.  How, he asked, could the United States best promote change and prevent Communism in this region?  Not with military force and a Cold War “us against them” mentality, he maintained.  He proposed that advocates for freedom in the Arab world would likely be as opposed to Western military interventions as to Communist takeovers.  He began his speech with the following statement:

“Mr. President, the most powerful single force in the world today is neither communism nor capitalism, neither the H-bomb not the guided missile – it is man’s eternal desire to be free and independent.  The great enemy of that tremendous force of freedom is called, for want of a more precise term, imperialism – and today that means Soviet imperialism and, whether we like it or not, and though they are not to be equated, Western imperialism.

“Thus the single most important test of American policy today is how we meet the challenge of imperialism, what we do to further man’s desire to be free.   On this test more than any other, this Nation shall be ethically judged by the uncommitted millions in Asia and Africa, and anxiously watched by the still hopeful lovers of freedom behind the Iron Curtain.  If we fail to meet the challenge of either Soviet or Western imperialism, then no amount of foreign aid, no aggrandizement of armaments, no new pacts or doctrines or high-level conferences can prevent further setbacks to our course and to our security.”

Kennedy pointed out that the Western nations’ stated policies of commitment to freedom clashed with our actions repressing Algerian desire for self-rule.  Our hypocritical stance, he believed, has “furnished powerful ammunition to anti-Western propagandists throughout Asia and the Middle East.”  He reminded the Senate of our nation’s revolutionary beginnings, and our dependence on French foreign aid to champion our cause with the British.  He contrasted terrorism and political revolution in this way:

” Terrorism must be combated, not condoned, it is said; it is not right to ‘negotiate with murderers’ . . . . The fever chart of every successful revolution . . . reveals a rising temperature of terrorism and counterterrorism; but this does not of itself invalidate the legitimate goals that fired the original revolution.  Most political revolutions – including our own – have been buoyed by outside aid in men, weapons, and ideas.  Instead of abandoning African nationalism to the anti-Western agitators and Soviet agents who hope to capture its leadership, the United States, a product of political revolution, must redouble its efforts to earn the respect and friendship of nationalist leaders.”

Negative reactions – furor and consternation – followed Kennedy’s speech, along with a flood of mail.  Widely covered by the press, this speech brought more mail to his Senate office than any other Kennedy delivered as a member of that body.  Historians see it as a key event on his road to the presidency.

Image Credit: The Boston Globe

Vintage 1957 – Page, Arizona

Page Business District

A Page out of history: Page, Arizona Business District, 1957.                                             Image Credit: Petey Lloyd Dietz

One of the largest – and most controversial – government projects of the 1950s and 1960s was the construction of Arizona’s Glen Canyon Dam and the ensuing creation of Lake Powell. Those in favor of sufficient supplies of water and electric power for the western states, and those in favor of preserving our nation’s natural landscape were in conflict from the very beginning of the project and continue so to this day.

Situated on Manson Mesa, overlooking the Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Powell, Page, Arizona has grown from a temporary tract of trailers to a city of over 7500 people. The original trailer community, know initially as Government Camp, formed in 1957 to provide housing for project workers and their families. Additional land was added in 1958, after a 24 square-mile land swap with the nearby Navajo Nation. Streets were laid out as part of a plan for future housing, shops, schools and churches. From the start of construction in 1956 until completion of the dam, power station and associated infrastructure in 1966, lives were lived and memories were created by families drawn to an outpost on the wild and beautiful border of Utah and Arizona.

One of those families belonged to Mike Adams. Mike’s father was a pilot and their first home was at the airport. They arrived in 1959 or 1960, Mike recalls, and he started attending 1st grade. His family moved quite a bit, including time in trailer courts (where he watched the Beatles on Ed Sullivan), apartments, and park ranger housing. When he was in high school, the family moved into a house his father built on Date Street and First Ave. As Mike writes in his blog, his “first bike, first girlfriend, first job, first bank account, first car, first home of my own, and first wife (and only wife – we’re still married)” all happened in Page, as the town came to be called in 1975. He no longer lives there but he has found a way to reconnect with his past and his friends through his photo blog of Page history.

With his permission, here are a few of the great photos he and his friends have shared on his site:

MCS Trailer Court

The MCS Trailer Court. Image Credit: Petey Lloyd Dietz

1272-usbr-p-557-420-03586-apr-1959-the-mens-store

The Men’s Store. Image Credit: USBR

Ernie Severino

Ernie Severino inside the original Page Jewelers. Image Credit: Ernie Severino, Jr.

The best histories always include the history of individuals and the real lives they lived. Mike writes well and has great memories to share. Thank you, Mike, for sharing your history with us.

Mike Adams

Mike Adams

Image Credit (Page, AZ): City of Page, Arizona website

July 1, 1957 – The International Geophysical Year Begins

On July 1, 1957, the International Geophysical Year (IGY) began its eighteen-month run.  First proposed by the International Council of Scientific Unions in 1952, the IGY was an ambitious program of coordinated research by the world’s scientists into the mysteries of geophysical phenomenon such as aurora and airglow, cosmic rays, geomagnetism, glaciology, gravity, ionospheric physics, longitude and latitude determination, meteorology, oceanography, rocketry, seismology, and solar activity.  Research into Antarctic ice depths yielded a new estimate of the earth’s total ice content.

But the most attention-grabbing goal of the program was the endeavor to launch an artificial satellite into orbit around the earth.  Recent breakthroughs in technology included cosmic ray recorders, spectroscopes, radiosonde balloons, electronic computers – and the rocket.  Exploration of space to pursue scientific knowledge of our solar system was now a real possibility.  By the end of the IGY the world’s superpowers had successfully launched seven satellites, after previous years of setbacks and failures.  The IGY fully achieved its goal to “observe physical phenomena and to secure data from all parts of the world; to conduct this work on a coordinated basis by fields, and in space and time, so that results could be collated in a meaningful manner”.

An uneasy relationship existed between the scientific community and the military establishment at this time.  IGY scientists feared that military preoccupation with launching satellites would detract from other goals.  Scientists also resented that the military held its rocket technology information close to the vest.

National Science Foundation posters, new television programs, and filmstrips for high schools were created by the program to translate the IGY findings for the common man.  Reaction to the first satellite launch took on a good news-bad news aspect.  On the one hand, we could now explore the infinity of space and learn more about our own planet.  On the other, those superpowers who now had satellite capability also had the ability to place nuclear bombs in orbit, threatening mass destruction.

Image Credit: National Academy of Sciences