Museums and Exhibits

July 14, 1957 – One Hundred Years of Architecture in America at the National Gallery of Art

 

On July 14, 1957, a National Gallery of Art exhibit celebrating the centennial of the American Institute of Architects, “One Hundred Years of Architecture in America“, came to a successful close.  Organized and directed by architectural historian Frederick Gutheim, the exhibit broke ground at the Gallery in several ways: its  first modern installation; first photographic exhibition; and first temporary exhibition.  The displays included ten giant illuminated color transparencies (some as large as 14 by 24 feet, courtesy of Eastman Kodak) of contemporary buildings, over 200 masonite panels mounted with historic photographs of 65 buildings, and a collection of architectural drawings  documenting the contribution of architects to the graphic arts.

An especially popular portion of the exhibit were 91 colorful embroidered and pieced panels depicting themes from biblical quotations about architecture.  Proposed for inclusion by California designer Charles Eames, the panels were created by Sisters Magdalene Mary and Mary Corita and their art classes at Immaculate Heart College, Los Angeles.  A catalog, 1857-1957: One Hundred Years of Architecture in America, by Frederick Gutheim, was published by Reinhold Publishing of New York.

The scenic Red Rocks Amphitheater, set amidst large rock slabs, was selected by the AIA to represent the state of Colorado at the exhibit.  Built in 1941 in Morrison, Colorado and designed by Denver architect Burnham Hoyt, the venue offers concert performers and goers nearly perfect acoustics.  The centennial exhibit also honored the work of Pasadena, California brothers and architects Charles Sumner Greene and Henry Mather Greene, famous for their Arts and Crafts esthetic and bungalow designs.  The National Historic Landmark David B. Gamble House in Pasadena, designed by the Greenes and constructed in 1908-1909,  is considered one of the finest examples of residential architecture in the United States.

Images Credit: American Institute of Architects; redrocksonline.com; visitpasadena.com

July 11, 1957 – Texas Boy Scouts Arrive for the 1957 National Jamboree

Boy Scout Jamboree NPS

Scouts arriving at the Valley Forge State Park for the Jamboree

On July 11, 1957, the Texas and Pacific Special, with eleven passenger coaches, two baggage cars, and one baggage dormitory car, arrived at Valley Forge State Park with 576 Texan Boy Scouts and their leaders for the 1957 National Scout Jamboree.  The excited group joined Scouts from across the nation – 52,580 in all – along with 30,000 visitors.  Valley Forge was transformed into a 25,000-tent city with a theater carved out of a hillside the size of Yankee Stadium.

On the way, the “TP Special” had stopped in Washington, DC for tours of the White House, the Capitol Building, the Washington and Jefferson memorials, Arlington National Cemetery, and Mount Vernon.  While in Valley Forge, the Scouts heard from Vice President Richard Nixon, watched fireworks displays, learned the history of Valley Forge, and were treated to an aerial show by the US Air Force Thunderbirds.  One day trip took them to New York City to see the Empire State Building, Rockefeller Center, the Statue of Liberty, Radio City Music Hall, and the United Nations.  On another day they traveled to Philadelphia to see Independence Hall, the Liberty Bell, Carpenter Hall (where the first Continental Congress met in 1774), the home of Betsy Ross, and the World War II U-boat-fighting submarine, USS Hake.

On the final night of the Jamboree, the story of Scout founder Braden Powell was told.  The stadium lights were turned off, and over 52,000 candles illuminated the memorable scene.  The Texas Scouts boarded their train for home, first stopping at Niagara Falls, then travelling through Canada to Detroit.  The Ford Motor Company played host to the group, giving them an exciting look at a huge factory assembly line – and a shiny new car produced in just minutes.  For many boys, it was the trip of a lifetime.

Image Credit: National Park Service

July 4, 1957 – An American Family Visits the Pennsylvania Gettysburg Monument

On July 4, 1957, American father Walter Reed took his family to visit Gettysburg, where occurred from July 1-3, 1863 one of the most significant battles of the Civil War.  More soldiers died at Gettysburg than at any other Civil War battle, and the Union victory there signaled a turning point in our nation’s conflict.  Reed’s photo captures the Pennsylvania Monument, the largest of many monuments gracing the site. The granite pavilion commemorates the state which provided the most troops, the Union army commander, and the battlefield itself.

A little over four months later, on November 19, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln dedicated the Soldier’s National Cemetery at Gettysburg with a short speech that has come to stand with the Declaration of Independence as a founding document for our nation.  On July 4th, Walter Reed and his family celebrated our independence at Gettysburg; perhaps they also read the Gettysburg Address together:

“Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

“Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure.  We are met here on a great battlefield of that war.  We have come to dedicate a portion of it as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live.  It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

“But in a larger sense we can not dedicate – we can not consecrate –  we can not hallow this ground.  The brave men, living and dead, who struggled, here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract.  The world will little note, or long remember, what we say here, but can never forget what they did here.

“It is for us, the living, rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they have, so far, so nobly carried on.  It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining here before us – that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion – that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom; and that this government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”

Reed took a number of photos that day, some of which were later published in The Open Road: The Way We Were, by Dorothy Youngblood. His photo of the Pennsylvania Monument includes his beautiful turquoise and white 1955 Ford Fairlane Town Sedan.

Image Credit: Leon Reed/flickr

November 11, 1957 – Eero Saarinen-Designed War Memorial Center Dedicated

War Memorial Center, Milwaukie, Wisconsin

War Memorial Center, Milwaukie, Wisconsin. Photo: Milwaukee War Memorial Center website

On November 11, 1957 – Veterans Day – the Milwaukee County War Memorial Center opened and was dedicated to the men and women who had served in the United States Armed Forces.  Designed as a floating cruciform structure by Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen, the magnificent building features cantilevered portions and has since been named a Milwaukee Landmark.  On the west-facing facade, a 1,440,000-piece mosaic mural by Air Force veteran and Milwaukee resident Edmund Lewandowski displays Roman numerals honoring those who gave their lives in World War II, the War on Japan, and the Korean conflict (1941-1945, 1950-1953).

On this Veterans Day, on behalf of grateful Americans everywhere, 1957 Time Capsule wants to express a most heart-felt thank you to all veterans and service members of United States Military forces past and present, at home and around the world.  I am grateful for your service and your sacrifice for us and for your country.

May we never forget.

Memorial Mosaic by Edmund Lewandowski

Memorial Mosaic by Edmund Lewandowski. Photo: Milwaukee War Memorial Center website

Vintage 1957 – Discovery of the Mysterious Vinland Map

Vinland Map. Photo source: Yale University Press, Yale University.

Vinland Map. Photo source: Yale University Press, Yale University.

In the fall of 1957, rare manuscript dealer Laurence Claiborne Witten II, of New Haven, Connecticut, stumbled upon the cartographic find of the century. He was browsing in the antiquarian shop of Nicolas Rauch, a rarities dealer in Geneva, when he discovered two vellum documents bound together which appeared properly ancient and highly intriguing. One was a map and one was a text, both on old vellum, and both incorporating seemingly authentic pigments, watermarks, wormholes, and symbols. The bound volume seemed to date from 1430 to 1450. The map displayed the continents of Europe, Africa, and Asia. It also included Greenland and portions of the coastline of Canadian North America which were startlingly accurate for the time period. And beyond this – the map indicated that Vikings had in fact visited that Canadian coastline between 985 and 1001. If the map were authentic, it would topple Italian Christopher Columbus’ claim to fame as the discoverer of the new world.

That little word “if” developed into a decades-long quest, drawing in all manner of experts in the field of geography, cartography, and ancient documents. Big guns from Yale University and the British Museum and many other research facilities have weighed in over the years. The map came to be known as the Vinland Map, since the Vikings had coined that name for the farthest reaches of their explorations to North American shores.

Simon Garfield gives us a lively view into the discovery of and controversy surrounding the Vinland Map in his delicious collection of geographic tales, On the Map. He translates the highly technical and esoteric investigations of the map into an accessible whodunit, charting the course of ups and downs, excitement and disappointment, thrills and chills. Debate on the provenance and meaning of the map continues. The bottom line? it’s all in the ink, and the experts don’t agree.

Who discovered America First? Columbus? Leif/Erik/Ragnar? I know, I know – my hand’s in the air! It was the ancestors of the Inuits who crossed the (now-submerged) land bridge from Siberia millennia ago.

October 23, 1957 – Christian Dior and Fifties Fashion in France

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Designer Christian Dior and models in London, April, 1950.

On October 23, 1957, one of France’s foremost couturiers passed his haute torch to a young prince who would come to dominate the houses of Paris’ eighth arrondissement. The dying monarch was Christian Dior and the coming king was Yves Henri Donat Matthieu-Saint-Laurent. Dior’s father, a wealthy fertilizer manufacturer, hope his second son would become a diplomat, but uncooperative Christian loved art. During the years that father Maurice’s business flourished, Christian managed a gallery and exhibited works by the likes of Pablo Picasso. After the onset of the Great Depression and the loss of his subsidized gallery, Christian went to work for designers Robert Piguet and Lucien Lelong. At the end of World War II and the French Occupation, Dior opened his own atelier in 1946. His first collection was presented in February, 1947.

Harper’s Bazaar then-editor-in-chief Carmel Snow captured the essence of Dior’s creations with the phrase, the “New Look.” With wartime fabric shortages becoming a thing of the past, Christian produced voluptuous styles, shapes, and silhouettes. Smoothly-fitted bodices, narrow waists, and flaring skirts gave society’s style-setters a most feminine and curvaceous appearance.

The house of Dior was highly successful through the 1950’s. Young, upcoming designers would join the atelier to learn and contribute their vision and skills. One such young man came to Paris in 1953 as the winner of the International Wool Secretariat designer contest. He stayed on in Paris to study at the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture and won the Secretariat competition again (beating out, among others, a young Karl Lagerfeld). On the strength of his sketches, and his shared sensibilities about fashion, Yves Saint Laurent was accepted into the Dior studio and began careful tutelage as a new apprentice.

Over time, more of Saint Laurent’s designs found their way into each season’s offerings at Dior. By August, 1957, Christian had decided that young Yves was the man to fill his slippers when the time came for a successor. He revealed his choice to Saint Laurent’s mother, who found the revelation confusing, since Dior was only 52 at the time.

Then, on October 23rd, Christian Dior passed away on holiday in Italy. Several conflicting reports as to the cause of his death have never been fully resolved. At 21 years old, Yves Saint Laurent took the reins at the grand house of Dior. His highly successful early collections were described as a softer version of Dior’s New Look, including the famous “trapeze dress.” Toward the end of the 1950s, Saint Laurent became interested in his world’s version of street style, the “beatnik” look. The press was not amused. After conscription and a brief stint in the French army, Saint Laurent came back in the 1960s and 1970s with his own atelier to become one of Paris’ powerhouse designers, with accomplishments and innovations almost too numerous to list. He was a bona fide member of the international jet set and a force to be reckoned with in haute couture for decades.

“Les Annees 50: La Mode in France” (The Fifties: Fashion in France, 1947-1957) opened last July 12th at the Palais Galliera in Paris. The multitude of pieces on display – basques, petticoats, corolla skirts, pointed shoes, bright floral prints, wasp-waisted or straight suits, strapless sheath dresses, cocktail, dresses, crystal embroidery, feathered hats with veils – “retraces the evolution of the female form through the decade 1947-1957: from the birth of the New Look to the death of Christian Dior and the advent of Yves Saint Laurent.” French fashion dominated the fifties closet-scape not only because of Dior and Saint Laurent, but also due to the contributions (included in Les Annes 50) of Jacques Heim, Chanel, Shiaparelli, Balenciaga, Jacques Fath, Pierre Balmain, Jacques Griffe, Hubert de Givenchy, and Pierre Cardin. Mary Hawthorne, writing for The New Yorker in their September 16th issue, contrasted the fashion on display with the clothing choices she observed among the exhibit-goers and the hijab-wearing demonstrators on the streets. If you are a fashion-loving fifties fan, plan to attend Les Annees 50 soon. The exhibit closes November 2nd.

October 16, 1957 – Margaret Mead Collects Schoolchildren’s Sputnik Drawings

Margaret Mead and Rhoda Metraux look at children’s drawings of Sputnik 1. Photo: Arthur Herzog, Library of Congress.

On October 16, 1957, 13-year-old Kathryn Leonard of Saratoga Springs, New York, completed a school assignment – draw an image of the recently launched Soviet satellite, Sputnik 1.  Her drawing survives, and was collected and included in a project by American anthropologist Margaret Mead, famous for her earlier studies of sexuality and the adolescent experience of teenage Samoan girls.  Horrified by the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Mead set out in the 1950’s to study American perceptions of science and space exploration.  Mead and her partner, Rhoda Metraux, decided to study “images of the scientist” among American students.  After the launch of Sputnik 1, they expanded their project to include children’s reactions to the history-making event.  Essays and drawings were collected from across the United States, and also around the world.  Mead and Metraux also conducted interviews and administered questionnaires for their collection, which is currently held in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress.

The driving force behind Mead’s research was her desire to find a “model for living in a radically changed world, a world in which human beings could destroy themselves.”

Sputnik drawing by student Kathryn Leonard. Image: Library of Congress